Endodontics is a specialty of Dentistry that deals with diseases of the dental pulp and its supporting structures. Endodontic therapy is commonly known as a root canal therapy.Endodontic treatment is necessary when the pulp becomes inflamed or infected. The most common reasons for inflammation or infection are deep cavities (caries), repeated dental procedures, cracks or chips. Trauma can also cause inflammation and often shows up as discoloration of the tooth. If pulp inflammation or infection is left untreated, it can cause pain or lead to an abscess.